Maize made possible the efficient and economical transport and exchange of horrific numbers of sub-Saharan Africans destined for the markets of Europe, the Middle East, and the Americas. In fact, the global proliferation of genetically engineered foods is poised to completely displace or replace existing strains of the primary grain crops with biologically engineered substitutes. These early Old World encounters with maize were ambivalent toward the exotic grain then known as Turkish wheat, Turkish grain, Spanish wheat, or Indian corn. Despite these distinctions, Doebley acknowledges that maize and the Mexican teosintes are essentially variants of the same biological species. Archaeological evidence is examined to try and unearth the truth. While the eight-rowed variety of maize was cultivated in the southeastern United States in pre-Columbian times, the Southern Dent Pathway accounts for the distributions of other varieties of maize after 1500 C.E., subsequent to Spanish contact in those regions. The antique indigenous group consists of those races that originated in Mesoamerica with the primitive earliest races of maize. 147–150. The adoption of maize in Africa and China heralded a dramatic social and cultural transformation. : Duxbury, 1978. "Modern Variability and Patterns of Maize Movement in Mesoamerica." So profound was the impact of maize on the African economy that, like Mesoamerica, culture and society, subsistence and settlement, political economy and gender relations, and the respective cuisines and culinary technologies of each of these vast regions were rapidly transformed to accommodate the adoption of maize and those human diasporas with which it was associated. The productivity and efficiency of maize horticulture and its low production and transportation costs made it a cheap food for slaves captured and held by European and Arabic slave traders. It did so in large part due to the unique lime processing of the soaked and softened maize kernels for nixtamal used in Mesoamerica. This was traditionally regarded as a movement which took place simultaneously with the industrial revolution, and involved t…, TILLAGE However, little of this maize is eaten directly by humans. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. However, the date of retrieval is often important. 66). Although it remains unclear who first introduced maize to Europe, Africa, and the Old World more generally, a number of scholars now argue that the Portuguese colonies of Africa served as the initial conduit to the diffusion of maize in that hemisphere. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Sevilla, Ricardo. Guatemala may have served as the source or conduit for the adoption of the earliest strains of maize in Andean South America and Peru. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/food/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/natural-history-maize. The proliferation of hybrid variants and recent advances in bioengineered or genetically modified varieties of maize has seemingly sealed the fate of this most ancient foodstuff. The cultural, economic, and political impacts of the European discovery of maize were evident in the ensuing population boom that followed its introduction into the Old World. adopted both the cylindrical silo or "corn crib" and the "dibble stick" from American Indian prototypes (Fussell, Tomatoes, Potatoes, Corn, and Beans: How the Foods of the Americas Changed Eating around the World. The history of agriculture (the production of food by plant cultivation and animal husbandry and control of productivity) can…, GREEN REVOLUTION. In the Western world, the term maize is used interchangeably with corn. a pale yellow resembling the color of corn: She wore a lovely maize dress. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. the area extending approximately from central Mexico to Honduras and Nicaragua in which diverse pre-Columbian civilizations flourished. Moreover, given the fact that in many areas of Africa, much of the traditional African agricultural complex—centered on such crops as millet—has been displaced by maize has much to do with the changing face of African cuisine at the most fundamental level of analysis, and more generally, at the interface of cultural change and transformation. Beginning in Italy, a variety of toppings and additives, including Anthropology, Archaeology. Male heads of household resisted the adoption of power milling technologies because the thirty-five to forty hours per week required to hand mill masa on the traditional metate grinding slab was construed as women's work. Because of the broad range of climates, soils, and topographic and hydrological conditions under which maize may be cultivated, diverse agricultural methods have evolved to accommodate its cultivation and processing. Ackerman, Jennifer. National Geographic 201 (2002): 2–51. More specifically, it is becoming increasingly evident that those agricultural practices identified with maize, such as swidden cultivation, extensive or shifting settlement patterns that are, in turn, identified with swidden systems, the processing of maize with basalt grinding slabs, the female domination of these labor-intensive food processing and storage traditions, and the emerging role of women in the maize-dominated marketplace have all played significant roles in the transformation of the African political economy. González, Roberto F. Zapotec Science: Farming and Food in the Northern Sierra of Oaxaca. For the past two hundred years, farmers and agricultural scientists in such areas have developed a variety of means, technologies, and hybrids suitable for the continuing propagation of maize. How to use a word that (literally) drives some pe... Test your knowledge of the words of the year. 1996. 252 – 264). Science News 137 (1990): 207. Whereas subsistence farmers throughout much of the Third World continue to thresh maize by hand without specialized equipment or resources, this task is left to agribusiness giants and commercial agricultural concerns in industrialized nations. whether maize can be bred so as to assure the sustainable evolution of the crop (Sevilla, p. 221). n maize A coal-tar color, the sodium salt of the disulphonic acid of azoxy-stilbene. Whereas each tassel contains some 25 million pollen grains, each female inflorescence or maize ear contains upwards of 1,000 ovules or potential kernels. Earlier forms of agricultural intensification associated with both chinampas and maize cultivation have similarly been identified with the ancient metropolis of Teotihuacan, Mexico. the grain of this plant, used for food, fodder, and as a source of oilUsual US and Canadian name: corn See also sweet corn. Maize , also known as corn (American English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. There is no agreement about the taxonomic names or numbers of races that may exist in any single world region. That is, differences are specific to the form of the plant and its reproductive architecture, including variation in the mode of development and arrangement of the flowers or blooms along the axis of the plant. The origins of maize begin on the Pacific slope of the modern Mexican states of Oaxaca, Tehuacán, and the Valley of Mexico. parviglumis ) in central America at least as early 9,000 years ago. The recurring introduction of nutrients for maize grown atop chinampa parcels entailed the use of lake bottom mud, silt, vegetation, and excrement in an otherwise effective and ecologically sound practice. Zapotec Science: farming and food in the southern United States alone and Nal-Tel Maize-Teosinte Population... 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