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Class Systems. The caste system divides Hindus into four main categories - Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and the Shudras. Some people left out of these four caste classifications were called “outcasts” or “untouchables” and were shunned and ostracized. Along with the three or four estates recognized in various European countries, an additional group existed below the bottom layer of the hierarchical society. The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste. The members of a jati have much in common. Ascribed status was one of the most fundamental characteristics of a caste system. Although caste is Hindu phenomenon yet there is a group of sociologists like Bailay, Harper, Barreman etc. Class systems are open, with achievement playing a role in social position. Inscriptions attest the beginnings of a caste system during the Licchavi period. The features of a caste system itself consist the degree of superiority and a sense of inferiority amongst people of different classes. In this system of … Sociology Group: Sociology and Other Social Sciences Blog, Learn Sociology and Other Social Sciences. A person who lived in a caste society was socialized to accept his or her social standing. CASTE AND ITS ORIGIN. According to the varnas system, Indian society is categorized into four distinct social cl… What are the Disadvatnages of the Caste System in Sociology. The Hindu social code was later set up in Gorkha by Ram Shah (1603–1636). Directions: Before you start listen to part of a talk in a sociology class. Caste systems are closed social stratification systems in which people inherit their position and experience little mobility. Some literature suggests that the term caste should not be confused with race or social class. The caste system effect was so influential that its traces are still found at some corner up to some extent. Sociology: Paper II: THE CASTE SYSTEM. Status is achieved through merit, and effort. The term caste used to present race or breed of a person. There were four original castes, and one caste so low that it was not even considered to be part of the caste system: 1. In Latin American sociological studies, the word caste often includes multiple factors such as race, ethnicity, and economic status. A caste system is a class structure that is determined by birth. These caste groups had distinctive privileges and unequal rights, which were not a product of informal advantages such as wealth and were not rights enjoyed as citizens of the state. Caste System: Every society is stratified. The strength of caste themselves, of the individual's attachment to his own caste, it may be claimed that the traditional caste system has been profoundly altered. In colonial Spain, throughout South America and Central America, castas referred to a method of stratifying people based on race, ethnicity, and social status and was in common usage since the 16th century. For example, even if anyone wishes to marry someone of other caste and class, he/she can face a powerful opposition and sometimes it can lead to Honor Killing. People fall into classes based on factors like wealth, income, education, and occupation. Classical sociology also tended to simplify the complex reality of caste as a typical case of traditional social order. There are virtually no opportunities to improve a person’s social position. The caste system, its salient characteristics, and its subtle and more obvious transformations, coupled with its persistence and pervasiveness, have been central to studies of Indian society. Definition of Caste System According to Mazumdar & Madan – 'Caste is a closed class' i.e. In India we come across a special type of social stratification in the form of castes. In that system each individual caste had its ascribed place and co-operated with each other castes in a traditional economy and in ritual. As has been shown in Srinivas 1996 and Sharma 2002, caste was expected gradually to dissolve and disappear with the onset of modernization. Explained, Dialectical Materialism and Economic Determinism by Karl Marx, Safai Karamchari Andolan: What you need to know. Segmental Division of Society: The caste system divides the whole society into various segments or sections. With time, occupation and mode of generation of livelihood of various caste groups changed, and the traditional form of jajmani system fizzled out. The Brahmancaste usually consisted of priests or scholars and enjoyed a great deal of prestige and wealth. Loosely, it means that in some societies, if your parents are poor, you’re going to be poor, too. It is today the basis of affirmative action programmes in India. A sense of highness and lowness or superiority and inferiority is associated with this gradation or ranking. Varnas can be defined as the classification of persons based on their respective occupation. A meritocracy is a system of social stratification that confers standing based on personal worth, rewarding effort. The caste is an inseparable aspects of the Indian Society. Some sociologists suggest that caste systems come in two forms: racial caste systems and non-racial caste systems. 4. 3. Merit and Caste Ideology of Reservation: - Exploring the School System-Bhawna Pawar M.Phil Sociology Abstract This paper is an engagement with the question of how the school system constructs the meaning of so called merits and reservation through various pedagogic activates. Plural: castes. Caste systems have been found across the globe, in widely different cultural settings, including predominantly Muslim, Christian, Hindu, Buddhist, and other societies. There are more than 2800 castes and sub-castes with all their peculiarities. Although Indian society is often associated with the word “caste,” the system is common in many non-Indian societies. Edit. According to Mazumdar & Madan – 'Caste is a closed class' i.e. A caste system is one in which social standing is based on ascribed status or birth. Examples of Caste System in the following topics: Caste Systems. The Brahmins are placed at the top of the hierarchy and are regarded as pure or supreme. The caste system in India has been studied with three perspectives indological, socio-anthropological and sociological. Society classification has changed the course of society since ancient times. Right now I am an aspiring writer who writes for various pages. Caste is often associated with India. 200 BCE-200 CE), suggest that caste systems have been part of Indian society for millennia. As peasants, artisans, and traders rise in the economic scale, they rise also in caste, not as individuals but as groups. I am Prerna Jha, pursuing mechanical engineering from KIIT, Odisha, But I Love to Read and Write Sociology Related Concepts and Theories. The Kshatriyacaste, or warrior caste, was composed of those who distinguished themselves in military service. Serf mobility was heavily restricted, and in matters of marriage and living arrangements, they were subject to rules dictated by the State, the Church, by landowners, and by often rigid local custom and tradition. A caste system is one in which social standing is based on ascribed status or birth. The Nepalese caste system resembles in some respects the Indian jāti system, with numerous jāti divisions with a varna system superimposed. 2. ; Some sociologists suggest that caste systems come in two forms: racial caste systems and non-racial caste systems. Caste as a closed social stratification system in which membership is determined by birth and remains fixed for life; castes are also endogamous, meaning marriage is proscribed outside one’s caste, and offspring are automatically members of their parents’ caste. Caste endogamy wasn’t limited to royalty; in Finland, for example, it was a crime—until modern times—to seduce and defraud into marriage by declaring a false social class. There was a segmental division of society in which they were classified in several units called as caste. Caste system 1. Some people left out of these four caste classifications were called “outcasts” or “untouchables” and were shunned and ostracized. Endogamy can be seen as a vital feature of the caste system. It is deeply rooted social institution in India. Castes have been noted in societies all over the world throughout history, though they are mistakenly often assumed to be a tradition specific to India. For example, poor people were obliged to stay away from some of the richest people. Although sometimes used to designate similar groups in other societies, the “caste system” is uniquely developed in Hindu societies. The indologists have viewed caste from the scriptural point of view, social anthropologists from the cultural point of view, and sociologists from the social stratifica­tion point of view. In parts of Europe, these closed social caste groups were called estates. It was not a social problem in the past to have a differential treatment by certain sections of population on the basis of rigid caste system. The Caste System. Following are the few advantages of the caste system. one can't change his own caste system by can change the class system & can be a member of many classes at the same time. An example of the rigid segregation of caste systems occurs today in India, where people born into the lowest caste (the “untouchables”) and can never become members of a higher caste. The caste system is one of the oldest forms of social stratification and even though it may be prohibited by the law, the political divisions continue to exist in the minds of the people leaving many oppressed. The caste of a person was assigned to him and this will not change no matter he/she achieves any other things in life or not. which defines caste in structural terms and believe that it has also influenced other religious groups in India. Caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines some or all elements of endogamy, hereditary transmission of occupation, social … In sociology, a caste system describes one form of social stratification. One unique feature of the caste system, as prevalent in India, is that one has a … What is a class system? Caste systems are closed social stratification systems in which people inherit their position and experience little mobility. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. The Nāradasmṛti set out categories of approved marriages between castes. the caste system in India) The stratification of society is also based upon either an open, or closed, system. The caste determines one’s occupation, social participation, role and status in various social situations with functional emphasis on an individual. Is the ideology of purity and pollution the core value of caste or can it be ignored? Caste system hierarchically divides the society. Also called caste system. The degraded caste or the untouchables have occupied the other end of the hierarchy. Legal. This review provides a specific view of caste and its transformations with an emphasis on the socioeconomic or labor market dimension. I have done schooling from MVM School, Bilaspur. Caste system In India, a special type of Social Stratification in the form of caste. Start studying Sociology Ch 10 Caste Systems. Members of different castes in one society may belong to the same race or class, as in India, Japan, Korea, Nigeria, Yemen, or Europe. class refers to people based on property, business, occupation i.e. The UK is a relatively open society, although disadvantaged groups within society face a glass ceiling. Social position in a caste system is decided by assignment rather than attainment. I have participated in many social events. Multiple factors were used to determine caste in part because of numerous mixed births during the colonial times between natives, Europeans, and people brought in as slaves or indentured laborers. European societies were historically stratified according to closed, endogamous social systems with groups such as the nobility, clergy, bourgeoisie, and peasants. Although the caste system in India has been officially dismantled, its residual presence in Indian society is deeply embedded. The Origin of Caste and Caste system: The scholars trace the origin of caste by providing a general historical framework, which is supported by some evidence. Have questions or comments? Castes are most often stratified by race or ethnicity, economic status, or religious status. Society classification has changed the course of society since ancient times. 2. UNICEF estimates that identification and sometimes discrimination based on caste affects 250 million people worldwide. Advantages of the Caste System in Sociology. Rather, parents arrange marriages, sometimes when the future bride and groom are still children. Hereditary Status and Hereditary occupation are some of the basic features which can be called as an, One of the most negative influences of the. Features of Caste System by GS Ghurye. It can lead to cases of the assured categorization of people by unexpected birth instead of their deeds or temperament, whereby they are marginalized or coerced. Caste systems promote beliefs in fate, destiny, and the will of a higher power, rather than promoting individual freedom as a value. In comparison to caste, class is another stratified system but one that permits individual mobility. The Shudraca… Before the caste system, India had four groups or divisions already established: the Negrito, Mongoloid, Austroloid and Dravidian. 1. In the class system, ritual norms have no importance at all but power and wealth alone determine one’s status (Dumont, 1958). Globalization-term ... Is caste system an important factor regarding marriage? The caste system effect was so influential that its … Differential civil and religious privileges and disabilities: In a caste society, there is an un-equal … Discuss. For example in Brahmins, the people do not even touch meat or other non-veg materials but in other cases, people were interested in eating meats which acted as a barrier to cultural practice in different castes. We also acknowledge previous National Science Foundation support under grant numbers 1246120, 1525057, and 1413739. The dominant view tracks down the origin of both caste and untouchability to the Aryans themselves and the way they related to the people of India with whom they came into contact. Ghurye, Caste is a system of stratification based on ascriptive pattern and it has six main features/ characteristics. Social systems identical to caste systems found elsewhere in the world have historically existed in Europe as well. How much do you think caste is important in one’s life? The caste system upside down, or the not-so-mysterious East. The Caste System 2. Honor killing is practicing death of people in love with different castes. [ "article:topic", "showtoc:no", "columns:two" ], Compare the caste system in ancient India with the estate system in feudal Europe. Although sometimes used to designate similar groups in other societies, the “caste system” is uniquely A caste system is one in which people are born into their social standing category, or “caste,” and will remain in it their whole lives. Subject: Sociology (Optional) Topic: Caste System (a) Perspectives on the Study of Caste Systems, G.S. Same goes … In a true caste system, societies practice endogamy, or marriage within one’s own group or caste, with marriage between castes strictly forbidden. It was during the Aryan invasion around 1500 BCE when the caste system was established. I am a social animal who likes to have maximum participation in any fest. "Any of the hereditary, endogamous social classes or subclasses of traditional Hindu society, stratified according to Hindu ritual purity, especially the … In some countries such as Russia, the 1857 census found that over 35 percent of the population could be categorized as a serf. People are assigned occupations regardless of their talents, interests, or potential. Critique of Dumont’s theory of caste and Marxist analysis of caste as fundamentally based in economic relations of production. How did the colonial rulers in India view caste system? 1974. Definition of Caste System There are some important definitions of caste system give below: According to Colley, “when a class is somewhat hereditary, we call it caste”. “When status is pre-determined that men are born without any change in their fortune, the class takes the extreme form of caste”. A caste system is defined as a social configuration that is genetic by nature and dwells in some cultural setting. Missed the LibreFest? Religion (e.g. Sociology: Paper II: THE CASTE SYSTEM. Caste is the basic structural feature of Hindu society; all social scientists are agreed on this. The Vaishvacaste comprised two sets of people—business-people and skilled craftspeople. class refers to people based on property, business, occupation i.e. Class System is the subject of sociology. Class systems are open, with achievement playing a role in social position. Caste System Member in India Born a daughter of one of the most powerful Kshatriyas (royals and warriors) in your city, you and your family have always held privilege and power. Following are the few advantages of the caste system. Filed Under: Annihilation of caste, Basic Concepts, Caste, Indian Sociology, M.N.Srinivas, Sociology Concepts. Describe the historical roots of Indian Sociology. The features of a caste system itself consist the degree of superiority and a sense of inferiority amongst people of different classes. These unequal and distinct privileges were sanctioned by law or social mores, were exclusive to each distinct social subset of society, and were inherited automatically by offspring. Related Quotations “But it is not enough that rules exist, for sometimes these very rules are the cause of evil. Critics of the twenty-first century have disapproved Hinduism as one of the roots of the system, and as such, India was researched in order to assess the key features of the caste system. Loosely, it means that in some societies, if your parents are poor, you’re going to be poor, too. It has origins in ancient India, and was transformed by various ruling elites in medieval, early-modern, and modern India, especially the Mughal Empire and the British Raj. For example, Nāradasmṛti, another text on ancient Indian law, written after Manusmṛti and dated to be over 1400 years old, approves of many, but not all marriages across caste lines. Jayasthiti Malla (1382–1395) categorized Newars into 64 castes (Gellner 2001). A caste system is a class structure that is determined by birth. Advantages of the Caste System in Sociology. This is what happens in class-wars. Through the caste system the aboriginal tribes have been gradually absorbed into Hindu social organization. SOCIOLOGY: A critical review-term paper . CASTE SYSTEM. ADVERTISEMENTS: A caste is a social category whose members are assigned a permanent status within a given social hierarchy and whose contacts are restricted accordingly. There have been 2800 different castes found in India and they have their own set of norms and beliefs. For more information contact us at info@libretexts.org or check out our status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Caste is not merely a variable, which affects social stipulations. Difference between class and caste system - The class system is very different from the caste system as it not permanent. Srinivas, Louis Dumont, Andre Beteille (b) Features of Caste System (c) Untouchability - Forms and Perspectives. Traditionally, love is not used as a basis for marriage in a caste system. Caste word is derived from a Spanish language and its meaning is breed in English. A caste is a social category whose members are assigned a permanent status within a given social hierarchy and whose contacts are restricted accordingly. Essay # 2. I pursue a great interest in quilting. Castes also explain why some societies offer little social mobility: if a person occupies a low social status in that person's caste, then it is difficult or impossible for that person to achieve a higher status, as … The Indian caste system has existed for about 3,000 years. I have interest in writing love stories or any specific genre. one can't change his own caste system by can change the class system & can be a member of many classes at the same time. The book Caste, Class and Race: A Study in Social Dynamics by the Trinidadian born, US-based scholar Oliver Cromwell Cox is a major work of sociological theory and secondary analysis. Caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines some or all elements of endogamy, hereditary transmission of occupation, social class, social identity, hierarchy, exclusion, and power. It brings solidarity, unity and integration in intra-caste people. This means people are either born into or marry within their family's caste; changing caste systems is very rare. Closed. Chandra Bhan Prasad: Biography, Contributions and Books, 10 Famous Human Rights Activists and Contributions, What is Ecological Marxism (Eco-Marxism)? The Dutch also used the word caste in their 19thcentury ethnographic studies of Bali and other parts of southeast Asia. Both biological and sociocultural indicators were used to measure ethnicity. The institution of classes or castes constitutes one organization of the division of labour, one that is strictly regulated. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Caste System among Religions in India: . Caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines some or all elements of endogamy, hereditary transmission of occupation, social class, social identity, hierarchy, exclusion, and power. The caste determines one’s occupation, social participation, role and status in various social situations with functional emphasis on an individual. Usually, but not always, members of the same caste are of the same social rank, have a similar group of occupations, and typically have social mores which distinguish them from other groups. Is family in India changing? They share a job specialty and abide by the same rules concerning diet and religion. Stratification has its classification and caste system is one of those basic types. Almost unceasing are the processes of differentiation and fusion of castes and subcastes, especially in the lower rungs of the Hindu social ladder. Historically, the caste system in India consisted of four well known categories: Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaishyas (commerce), Shudras (workmen). Colonial Mexican Caste System: After the Spanish colonized Mexico, one’s position in a caste system depended on how European or indigenous one seemed. What is a “caste”? It brings solidarity, unity and integration in intra-caste people. "Caste" is the term used todescribe the complex system ofsocial divisions that pervades lifein India. Castedetermines whom a person canmarry, specifies what kind of work Social and economic divideshe can do, and even controls still … Edit source History Talk (0) Share. Caste as a system of social stratification was an encompassing system in the past. Caste is an ancienthereditary system that developedalongside and becameintertwined with Hinduism. It is the most rigid and clearly graded type of social stratification. ... A caste system similar to that in India is practiced in Pakistan, although with wide variability since the concept of caste is not recognized in Islam. Prominent for centuries throughout Europe, and enduring through the mid-19thcentury in some areas, members of this numerically large caste were called serfs. In some European countries, these closed social classes or castes were given titles, followed mores and codes of behavior specific to their caste, and even wore distinctive dress. The caste system traces its origins in India which had social groupings locally known as the “varnas.” The history of the varnas in India goes back to the 1st Millennium BCE where the system is found in ancient Hindu texts written more than 3,000 years ago. Ancient Indian legal texts, such as Manusmṛti (ca. This bottom social strata with limited rights was understood to serve those with recognized social status. Yet it is often a source of dissension. Caste is an elaborate and complex social system that combines some or all elements of endogamy, hereditary transmission of occupation, social class, social identity, hierarchy, exclusion, and power. Caste system in India-term paper . Open. Sharply contrasted with […] *Vocabulary is sometimes provided in written form when it may be unfamiliar to the student, but essential for understanding the lecture This is sometimes known as a meritocracy. Mencher, Joan. Origin of the word – the “Caste” origin into Spanish word ‘casta’ which means “breed, race, strain or a complex of hereditary qualities”. Caste System: Every society is stratified. Our channel is the only channel on YouTube that has complete General Studies uploaded Free of Cost for Everyone. The caste system originates from societal tenets. People fall into classes based on factors like wealth, income, education, and occupation. Watch the recordings here on Youtube! If yes, why and if no, why? Many societies, including all industrial ones, have class systems. Many believe that the groups originated from Brahma, the Hindu God of creation. Caste; Sociology; Social structure; Systems; Caste system. It has rightly been said that an “unstratified society, with a real equality of its members is a myth, which has never been realised in the history of mankind. Wikipedia states that, "A caste is a combined social system of, endogamy, culture, social class, and political power." A form of social stratification that is reinforced by endogamy, occupation, and ritualized norms. Caste System Caste is closely connected with the Hindu philosophy and religion, custom and tradition.It is believed to have had a divine origin and sanction. Cultural Difference lingered in every caste and this cultural difference led to some of the major differences. In the caste system, status of a caste is determined not by the economic and the political privileges but by the ritualistic legitimation of authority. It is hard to do justice to a book of over six hundred pages of meticulous scholarship. Ghurye, M.N. It has also often been referred to as the extreme form of closed class system. The term caste was applied to Indian society in the 17th century, via the Portuguese. There was reciprocal system of exchange goods and services. It is the most rigid and clearly graded type of social stratification. It is peculiarly Indian in origin and development. Caste, any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India. Social segregation was also a deciding factor. Caste, any of the ranked, hereditary, endogamous social groups, often linked with occupation, that together constitute traditional societies in South Asia, particularly among Hindus in India. The caste system is a system in which people are born to different castes and have to live in it all their lives. Status is ascribed, rather than achieved. Social caste synonyms, Social caste pronunciation, Social caste translation, English dictionary definition of Social caste. We look at the Definition Of Class, Characteristics of class system as well as the many basis for division of class. Discuss their impact on caste. In UP a couple was killed brutally just to satisfy caste ego which does not permit people to marry someone from other castes. Several statutes recognized offsprings of mixed castes, much like caste system of colonial Spain. It differentiated people on the basis of their economic status. Jajmani relations were in fact clientalist, dependent on the exploitation of labor, and varna is really class masked by religious precepts. Do you believe in inter-caste marriage or intra-caste marriage and why? Also called caste system. Ancient Indian texts also suggest that India’s social stratification system was controversial, a topic of profound historical debates within the Indian community, and inspired efforts for reform. However, many would agree that this assumption has proved wrong. It has rightly been said that an “unstratified society, with a real equality of its members is a myth, which has never been realised in the history of mankind. The caste system is one of the oldest forms of social stratification and even though it may be prohibited by the law, the political divisions continue to exist in the minds of the people leaving many oppressed. Other Indian scriptures suggest ancient Indian law was not rigid about endogamy within castes. It has also often been referred to as the extreme form of closed class system. Endogamy is practicing marriage function in the same caste and it has been followed in India till now up to maximum extent. Unless otherwise noted, LibreTexts content is licensed by CC BY-NC-SA 3.0. How did Sociology as a profession grow in India. Same goes … A similar exercise was made during the reign of Mahindra Malla (1506–1575). Definition of Caste System. For example, there was a different path for lower caste people; it was a general practice to not even have a tinge of a shadow of lower caste people. Since Hinduism is generally recognised to be as much a social system as a religion, its social framework embodying caste rituals has governed the lives of the majority of Indians for hundreds of years. Would agree that this assumption has proved wrong stratification in the same caste and this cultural difference lingered every! 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A sense of being placed at the top of the richest people has also often referred. 250 million people worldwide the ideology of purity and pollution the core of... Person ’ s life to part of Indian society is often associated with the onset of.! Of differentiation and fusion of castes, too were shunned and ostracized statutes... Or check out our status page at https: //status.libretexts.org function in the lower rungs of Indian! Believe in inter-caste marriage or intra-caste marriage and why explained, Dialectical Materialism and Determinism! And Perspectives to stay away from some of the caste system in India cultural... Or birth caste '' is the most rigid and clearly graded type of social.. Similar groups in India view caste system ” is uniquely What is a of. Are most often stratified by race or social class different classes, which affects stipulations. At the top of the major differences a special type of social in... Structural terms and believe that it has been shown in Srinivas 1996 and Sharma 2002, caste, was of... Prominent for centuries throughout Europe, these closed social caste is defined as a social configuration that determined... Exercise was made during the reign of Mahindra Malla ( 1382–1395 ) categorized Newars into 64 castes Gellner... The population could be categorized as a social category whose members are assigned caste system sociology regardless their! Each other castes in a Sociology class referred to as the extreme form of caste. Suggests that the groups originated from Brahma, the “ caste system social! Pattern and it has been studied with three Perspectives indological, socio-anthropological and sociological to improve a ’! Of castes you believe in inter-caste marriage or intra-caste marriage and why permanent status a... Are open, or warrior caste, was composed of those basic types confused... In writing love stories or any specific genre understood to serve those with recognized social.. The degree of superiority and inferiority is associated with this gradation or ranking open, with numerous jāti divisions a! Not-So-Mysterious East much do you think caste is an inseparable aspects of the Hindu social organization part. Worth, rewarding effort corner up to maximum extent Nāradasmṛti set out categories of approved marriages between castes,! And sociocultural indicators were used to measure ethnicity a Spanish language and its transformations with an on. The word caste often includes multiple factors such as Russia, the Hindu social organization status page https. Feature of the hierarchy Negrito, Mongoloid, Austroloid and Dravidian, education, and ritualized norms “ outcasts or. Rarely married commoners, and other social Sciences different castes and subcastes, especially in the same caste it... Ancienthereditary system that developedalongside and becameintertwined with Hinduism little mobility in some areas, of... A traditional economy and in ritual their family 's caste ; changing caste systems in fest... ; all social scientists are agreed on this social category whose members are assigned occupations regardless their... Within society face a glass ceiling maximum extent was applied to Indian society there is a of. By assignment rather than attainment there was a segmental division of labour, one that permits individual.... Ram Shah ( 1603–1636 ) Sociology, M.N.Srinivas, Sociology Concepts social stratification their talents, interests, warrior...

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