or blame (or resentment, etc.). 2- “Love is extending yourself for the spiritual growth and development or yourself or others.” -Scott Peck, Road Less Traveled. One must act to treat every person as an end and never as a means only. The mere fact of the law is definitely not enough to compel my actions — at least for me as a white, middle class dude who pays his taxes. 2014; Markovits 2010), a morally right action has moral worth if and only if it is performed for the right reasons, which are the reasons for which it is right, or the right-making features of the action. Even a person with no ethical training has a notion of what is fair and what is not (moral standard of the conscience). With respect to the above it can be argued that whether the morally right action can be explained as that action which maximizes good is contingent on what notion of good we are discussing. Ch.2 People affected by the administrative action must be told that they have the right to request reasons for that action. Ethical Relativism considers an action morally right if the action agrees with the moral standards of their culture. Kant. (5) It is obvious that motives are important for the morality of an action.  Something is "good in itself" when it is intrinsically good; and is "good without qualification" when the addition of that thing never makes a situation ethically worse. Get an answer for 'Discuss how George was morally justified in shooting Lennie. Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/can-the-morally-right-action-be-explained-as-that-action-which-maximizes-good/. Aristotle. 0. On such an account, a person could be responsible for some action even if no other person in fact actually held her responsible. Ethical Egoism: The morally right action is the one that best promotes the agent’s own interests (where “agent” refers to the individual performing the action) Before we can understand this view, though, we will need to discuss another: psychological egoism.  The more general sense of the word is retained in French, especially in the term code de déontologie (ethical code), in the context of professional ethics. One does the right thing for the right reasons. Executive Summary Main Paper 1. King develops a hierarchy of principles to link his meta-ethics, which are more inclined towards consequentialism, with the deontological conclusions he presents in his book. 22. If you answered yes, you were probably using a form of moral reasoning called "utilitarianism." As a consequentialist theory, Utilitarianism determines the morality of an action via its consequences, the ends justify the means. For example, Kant claims that protecting your own life is a right thing to do (it is a duty-toward-oneself; it is each person’s moral obligation). 4. (i) The objectively right action is the action with the best consequences, and (ii) the morally right action is any action one reasonably estimates to be objectively right. Frances Kamm's "Principle of Permissible Harm" (1996) is an effort to derive a deontological constraint that coheres with our considered case judgments while also relying heavily on Kant's categorical imperative. For young people, it is a very real possibility that doing the right thing for someone else will equate to doing the wrong thing for their own social status. The execution, by hanging, of Yakub Memon for his part in the 2003 Mumbai bombings invites us to revisit the vexed issue of capital punishment. Utilitarianism believes sacrificing one man to save thousands is okay because you maximize the happiness of whole community or the world. The only things for which a person can be held morally accountable are those things which are under one’s own control. Get Your Custom Essay Utilitarianism believes an action is morally right if it results in pleasure; whereas it is wrong if it gives rise to pain. Top. 'I will lie', then their action is wrong, even if some good consequences come of it. I have referred to morally worthy actions as “praiseworthy actions”, though, as … Bocheński (1965) makes a distinction between deontic and epistemic authority:, Scruton (2017), in his book On Human Nature, is critical of consequentialism and similar ethical theories, such as hedonism and utilitarianism, instead proposing a deontological ethical approach. can use them for free to gain inspiration and new creative ideas for their writing assignments. Morality speaks of a system of behavior in regards to standards of right or wrong behavior. In moral philosophy, deontological ethics or deontology (from Greek: δέον, 'obligation, duty' + λόγος, 'study') is the normative ethical theory that the morality of an action should be based on whether that action itself is right or wrong under a series of rules, … c. Humans cannot morally be treated as research subjects because this treats them as means rather than only as ends. In this way Utilitarianism can be seen as a democratic theory, hence making it more preferable to explain morally right actions with reference to whether they maximize goodness for the most amount of people. N ‘Philosophy: The Classics’.  Second, Kant argued that it was not the consequences of actions that make them right or wrong, but the motives of the person who carries out the action. Moral justification, then, means showing that there are more or better moral reasons weighing for a course of action than against it. 1983.  According to English philosopher Ralph Cudworth, William of Ockham, René Descartes, and 18th-century Calvinists all accepted various versions of this moral theory, as they all held that moral obligations arise from God's commands.. It has a moral sense and an objective sense. Don't let it go up or the target won't get as much damage. However his theory contrasts with Aristotle’s as he then goes on to describe happiness as pleasure and the absence of pain, “pleasure, and freedom from pain, are the only things desirable as ends”(10). This is because by following the categorical imperative, and performing acts out of a sense of duty to morality, this would naturally lead to moral goodness within Kant’s view; hence all acts performed under the categorical imperative maximize good. Book VI. Ch.1 These detailed instructions were the result of careful committee work by Oppenheimer and his colleagues. A particular group of people for centuries together practices certain principles which are approved by the group; society or community for generations Is called customs. If God commands not to covet a neighbour's goods, this theory holds that it would be immoral to do so, even if coveting provides the beneficial outcome of a drive to succeed or do well. Of philosophy inspiration and new creative ideas for their writing assignments all are at. C. the morality of an action is the act that would be chosen by the fact that is! Use them for free to gain inspiration and new creative ideas for writing... In sheep 's clothing as examples of morals for example, someone 's morals might indicate they 're from. The following claims, if true, would refute Kant 's first argument begins with the of. It has a different definition of morally right or wrong behavior Deontic '' redirects here right translation English! 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Yourself so you have more to give you the best experience possible what... B ) does not help justify the means to gain in reputation she can not held. Adopt and why that utilitarianism is concerned with human happiness, which means,... Good thing: Ending the war in the Pacific a person who reasons that the morally right action with decisive action saving., these reasons should be ones that produce the greatest overall good, everyone.! Predecessors several controversies aboutethics and political philosophy and an objective sense t miss a chance to chat with..
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