BMC Evolutionary Biology 10(1): 238. The ESA requires the Ministry to conduct a review of progress towards protecting and recovering a species not later than five years from the publication of this response statement. Population abundance, though difficult to measure, will also likely increase along with increases to the area of occupancy. The coordinates may not fall within critical habitat and are provided as a general location only. Figure 1 shows the range of Jefferson Salamander, all of which are permanent residents, as mainly throughout New England and states south of the Great Lakes as well as small patches in southern Ontario. Forestry activities and the equipment used in them may result in the filling of vernal pools, alteration of vernal pool hydrology, sedimentation, removal or alteration of associated upland habitat (removal of canopy cover, stumps, logs and leaf litter, and alteration of nutrient inputs by leaves), pollution and fragmentation or isolation of vernal pools from the terrestrial habitat. Jefferson Salamander individuals occur in all of the populations shown in figure 2 (Bogart 1982, Bogart and Cook 1991, Lamond 1994, Bogart unpublished information), but some of these localities have not been revisited for more than 10 years. In 2004, the University of Guelph initiated radio-telemetry studies of a southern Ontario Jefferson Salamander population (K. Bériault 2005). Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Urodela. Jefferson Salamanders occasionally breed in old farm ponds and human-created depressions that have reached a substantial state of wetland succession (probably after decades) and that occur within or close to existing forested or other naturally vegetated areas. Breeding success varies from year to year, depending on spring weather and water-level conditions. Within the critical habitat boundary, activities may affect core habitat areas which include breeding ponds and the areas within 300 m of occupied breeding ponds that provide suitable conditions for foraging, dispersal, migration or hibernation (i.e., the areas described in 28 (1) (i-iii) of the Ontario Regulation 242/08). This recovery strategy has been prepared as advice to the Government of Ontario, other responsible jurisdictions and the many different constituencies that may be involved in recovering the species. Environment Canada has included an addition (Part 1) which completes the SARA requirements for this recovery strategy. Estimates of population size for the Jefferson Salamander are difficult to obtain because of the presence of unisexual salamandersFootnote8 which are morphologically similar to the Jefferson Salamander, and comprise approximately 90% of local populations (Bogart 2003; Bogart and Klemens 1997, 2008; Bi and Bogart 2010). 1986. Implementation of this strategy is subject to appropriations, priorities and budgetary constraints of the participating jurisdictions and organizations. Identify currently unoccupied sites where the species used to occur and where the habitat has the potential to be enhanced or restored. The NHIC uses a 1 kilometre radius to define element occurrences of the Jefferson Salamander in Ontario. They are usually not found in conifer forests, likely due to the dryness and prickliness of some pine and spruce needles, which may injure amphibians with their thin skins. One breeding pond does not necessarily represent a population; several or many breeding ponds within an area may support a discrete population. The natural heritage of southern Ontario's settled landscapes. The Government Response Statement is the Ontario Government's policy response to the recovery strategy and summarizes the prioritized actions that the Ontario Government intends to take and support. Knowledge of the species' whereabouts is not widespread in the general public since adult Jefferson salamanders migrate and breed during very few rainy nights early in spring, and juveniles migrate in late summer or early fall. The response statement is the government's policy response to the scientific advice provided in the recovery strategy. The presence of eggs of jeffersonianum-dominated polyploids necessarily and absolutely indicates the presence of a breeding pure Jefferson Salamander, which is required as a sperm donor to initiate egg development of jeffersonianum-dominated polyploids (Bogart and Klemens 1997, 2008, Rye and Weller 2000, OMNR 2008 unpublished data). A recovery strategy outlines the habitat needs and the threats to the survival and recovery of the species. Since 2003, more than 100 wetlands with the potential to support Ambystoma species have been searched to determine whether the Jefferson Salamander is present. 1997. Sprules. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. … IUCN Red List. Most of the individuals across the range of both species are likely hybrids (Klemens 1993). Rye, L., and W.F. This federal recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Jefferson Salamander and by protecting and enhancing breeding habitat for other co-occurring amphibian species. 1980; Jefferson Salamander Recovery Team 2010). Actions which are noted as "high" will be given priority consideration for funding or for authorizations under the ESA. In place of section 2, Environment Canada is establishing a population and distribution objective and performance indicators, is adopting the government-led and government-supported actions of the Jefferson Salamander Ontario Government Response StatementFootnote1 (Part 3) as the population and distribution objective and the broad strategies and general approaches to meet the population and distribution objective; and is adopting the habitat regulated under Ontario's Endangered Species Act, 2007 as critical habitat for the Jefferson Salamander. This requires that both surfacewater hydrology and groundwater contributions are not disrupted, altered or diminished. Additional preparation and review of the document was completed by Rachel deCatanzaro, Angela McConnell, and Allison Foran (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario). Haldimand, Norfolk, Wellington, Brant, Grey and Elgin counties; forested habitat along the Niagara Escarpment from the Hamilton area to Orangeville; isolated localities in Halton, Peel, Waterloo, York and Niagara regions; Dufferin County east of the Niagara Escarpment. Canadian Journal of Zoology 60:848-855. These performance measures will also indicate the extent to which the objectives have been met. American Museum Novitates 3627: 1-58. Sufficient suitable habitat is available to support the species or could be made available through habitat management or restoration. Egg and larval mortality have been observed to be high in ponds used by most populations of the Jefferson Salamander, but dead eggs are usually attributed to the polyploids. The regulation is dynamic and automatically in effect whenever the description(s) of the regulation are met. To meet the requirements and processes set out in SARA, Environment Canada has refined this recovery goal into a population and distribution objective for the species. The reduction of vernal pond "envelopes" and buffer zones also has been suggested as contributing to the reduction and possible elimination of species of Ambystoma salamanders (Calhoun and Klemens 2002). Under SARA, there are specific requirements and processes set out regarding the protection of critical habitat. The transformation from larvae to adults normally occurs in July and August, when juveniles move out of the pond and seek shelter in the forest litter. It also makes recommendations on the objectives for protection and recovery, the approaches to achieve those objectives, and the area that should be considered in the development of a habitat regulation. Jefferson's Salamanders deposit eggs in elongated, globular masses attached to sticks and vegetation. Conservation partners are encouraged to discuss project proposals related to the actions in this response statement with the Ministry of Natural Resources. The distribution of the Jefferson Salamander in Canada as of October 2008 is based on approximately 328 known breeding ponds representing approximately 27 geographically discrete populations. The project also aims to create knowledge to Pennsylvania residents not only through the internet, but also through interaction with the public, with the help of volunteers in the field to communicate with individuals on a personal level. The glossary provides definitions for the abbreviations above. Unknown. 2009. Northern dusky salamanders occur in a wide range of brown and gray color patterns Pseudotriton montanus flavissimus (HALLOWELL 1856), Gulf Coast Mud Salamander. Consistent with general principles of conservation biology for species at risk, compensatory measures such as habitat creation and species relocation efforts should be undertaken only as a last resort and when other measures (e.g., mitigation) have proved unsuccessful. The monitoring frequency of the locations should be prioritized on the basis of current and potential threats. In the part of the province located south and east of the Canadian Shield, over 70 percent of the original woodlands have been lost since European settlement (Riley and Mohr 1994). Information contributed by Talena Kraus (Artemis Eco-works), Kari Van Allen and Angela Darwin (Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario) and Barbara Slezak (formerly Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service-Ontario) is also gratefully acknowledged. Relations of the diploid and triploid species of the Ambystoma jeffersonianum complex (Amphibia, Caudata). The government's goal for the recovery of the Jefferson Salamander is to ensure that threats to populations and habitat are addressed, in order to allow for the long-term persistence and expansion of the species within its existing Ontario range. Version 7.0 NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. However, if activities do not have lasting effects (e.g., upgrading of a road that does not result in further reducing habitat permeability or increasing pollution), it may only cause destruction if conducted when the species is undertaking terrestrial movements (typically late March to early April; and mid-July to mid-September). In 2002 and 2003, the recovery team worked with the Regional Municipality of York to determine whether Jefferson Salamander populations existed in York Region. A standard measurement of an animal';s body length. See Gap Analysis Project Species Range Maps for more … This means that pure Jefferson Salamanders represent only 5 to 10 percent of the relative abundance of the population (Bogart and Klemens 2008). COSEWIC status report on Jefferson salamander, Ambystoma jeffersonianum, in Canada. comm.). Uzzell (1964) tried to establish ranges for the Jefferson Salamander by sorting the males into Blue-spotted Salamander and Jefferson Salamander and by using blood-cell size to distinguish diploid and triploid females. In Ontario, the correspondence between pure Jefferson Salamanders and jeffersonianum-dominated polyploids is absolute, as is the case in New England and New York (Bogart and Klemens 1997, 2008). The NHIC (2003) has assigned the species a rank of S2 (i.e., very rare in Ontario; usually between 5 and 20 element occurrences in the province, or few remaining hectares, or with many individuals in fewer occurrences; often susceptible to extirpation). Individuals of the wildlife species that are capable of reproduction are available now or in the foreseeable future to sustain the population or improve its abundance. Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source. Objective:Address knowledge gaps on the species' movements and habitat use to inform protection of habitat. Implementation of the actions may be subject to changing priorities across the multitude of species at risk, available resources and the capacity of partners to undertake recovery activities. Salamanders of the species or subspecies shown are expected to be found within the illustrated area in places where suitable habitat and conditions occur. The recommendation provided below by the author will be one of many sources considered by the Minister when developing the habitat regulation for this species. Vernal pools vary in their size, shape, depth, timing and duration of flooding, and the types of species that are able to use them. Key knowledge gaps relating to the Jefferson salamander include (but are not limited to) the following: These knowledge gaps have been grouped below in terms of the research requirements for clarifying threats and increasing biological/ecological information. Terrestrial habitat includes all of the areas and features described above that extend radially 300 metres from the edge of the breeding pond. Most often, these salamanders are associated with deciduous or mixed woodlands. Jefferson Salamanders use a number of terrestrial habitats during all parts of their life cycle, including during migration to and from breeding ponds, summer and fall movement and foraging, and overwintering. That large sample identified only 66 pure Jefferson Salamander individuals (6.59%). At the national scale, it is ranked as ImperiledFootnote6 N2) in Canada and Apparently Secure (N4) in the United States. 2010. Reproduction and the origin of polyploids in hybrid salamanders of the genus Ambystoma. Taylor. GAP range maps represent a coarse representation of the total areal extent of a species or the geographic limits within which a species can be found. A habitat regulation is a legal instrument that prescribes an area that will be protected as the habitat of the species. This series presents the collection of recovery strategies that are prepared or adopted as advice to the Province of Ontario on the recommended approach to recover species at risk. Yes. Support will be provided through funding, agreements, permits (including conditions) and advisory services. This recovery strategy will be followed by one or more action plans that will provide information on recovery measures to be taken by Environment Canada and other jurisdictions and/or organizations involved in the conservation of the species. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). Gates, and G.S. Pp. Protection and Recovery Objectives, Table 3. The apparent absence or lack of documentation of a Jefferson Salamander individual is often the result of naturally low relative abundance and/or limited search effort (Bogart and Klemens 2008). NatureServe also applies conservation status ranks at the national (N) and subnational (S) (i.e., provinces or states) levels. Karine Bériault and Cadhla Ramsden’s research on habitat requirements and non-lethal sampling methods has been invaluable. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR). Molecular Ecology Notes 3:95-97. The area defined under Ontario's habitat regulation contains the biophysical attributes required by the Jefferson Salamander to carry out its life processes. Terrestrial habitat must contain microhabitat, such as rodent burrows, rock fissures, downed woody debris, tree stumps and buttresses, leaf litter, logs, and so on. Description: Slimy Salamanders were once considered one species (P. glutinosus) but have recently been split into 13 separate species.They all look similar and are best differentiated by range. American Museum Novitates No. Activities described in Table 2 are examples of those likely to cause destruction of critical habitat for the species; however, destructive activities are not necessarily limited to those listed. and is currently listed as ThreatenedFootnote4 on Schedule 1 of the federal SARA. Activities likely to destroy the critical habitat of the Jefferson Salamander. The Jefferson Salamander plays an important role in channeling nutrients between the aquatic environment and the upland wooded environment and is an indicator species of high-quality vernal pools. Jefferson Salamanders were last observed at that site in April 1989 (Bogart unpublished data) and the breeding pond was dry in successive years (1990–93). © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Minister of the Environment, 2015. Contrary to earlier theories, there is no evidence of past or present hybridization among the members of the A. laterale–jeffersonianium complex (Bogart 2003). To learn more about species at risk recovery in Ontario, please visit the Ministry of Natural Resources Species at Risk webpage. Figure 1. Connecticut, Maryland, New Jersey, West Virginia, Identify and monitor extant populations of the Jefferson Salamander in Canada, Apply research findings on the species' movements and habitat use to ensure protection of habitat, Identify historic populations/sites with the potential for enhancement or restoration (e.g., recovery habitat), Develop a communication strategy to inform municipalities, planners, the development industry, property managers and other stakeholders of the habitat mapping and protection requirements for the Jefferson Salamander under the, Develop and evaluate mitigation and restoration techniques employed to address threats, Population and habitat monitoring/ research, Description of habitat recommended for regulation under the ESA 2007, Restoration and enhancement of historic sites, Project Coordinator, Terrestrial Field Inventories, Recovery Strategy for the Jefferson Salamander (Ambystoma jeffersonianum) in Canada - 2015 [Proposed]. 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